(2013) The Many Faces of Shame: A Response to Robert Stolorow’s Blogs on Shame

There are many meanings of shame running along a continuum of sensitivity to disapproval. Identifying and distinguishing among them reveals that the core of the most intensive version of shame is the belief of personal unworthiness, which in turn reveals the internalized nature of shame, its difference from embarrassment and guilt, and its role in human development.


(2000). "Review: Why We Feel, by Victor S. Johnston". Journal of Consciousness Studies, 7 (7), 88-90.

Adeptly employs computer simulations to illustrate a non-teleological, evolutionary account of human emotion. Explains emotion in terms of the phylogeny and neural substrates of human emotion. He is less successful in arguing that consciousness is an emergent property of the brain.


(2000) with Nitin Trasi and Morgan Zo Callahan. "Enlightenment, Depression, and Psychotherapy" (online exchanges).

Explores the difference between depression and the via negativa approach to enlightenment.


(1999). "The Internet as Cyber-Rorschach". Clio's Psyche, 6 (2), 48-50.

Because email lacks so many of the non-verbal cues present in face-to-face communication, the possibilities are greater for projecting our assumptions onto others.


(1978). Philosophical Issues in the Psychological Diagnosis of Guilt and Shame. PhD Dissertation, Austin, TX: University of Texas.

Explains the emotions of guilt and shame in terms of their characteristic belief: doing wrong and being unlovable, respectively. Distinguishes them from fear of punishment, desire for punishment, regret, disappointment with oneself, fear of rejection, sense of inferiority, and embarrassment. Identifies inconsistencies in Freud's account.